当 圆的知识 出版于1847年, one of its objectives was to bring within the scope of a school book those neglected, 而是有用和熟悉的东西, which are generally overlooked in the ordinary instruction of children. This intention was expressed in the following paragraph of its preface.
“The subjects chosen for the lessons are such as all children are interested in, 就像他们不断地问问题一样, 这些在通俗作品中都有说明, 哪些是老师和家长容易接触到的. It has been a main object to exclude everything that might be considered cold and lifeless, 培养对普通事物的兴趣, 和日常生活, 并使所有的课程自然和生动.”
The author, Lord Ashburton, said, “”we sadly want some plain formula appealing to common sense.”
Today, Ashburton’s theory is being widely used in the teaching of Common Core Standards. It is one of the six core principles, referred to by contemporary educators as the “Core Six.”
简而言之, 圆的知识 is a strategic framework for planning and conducting classroom discussions that engage all students in deeper thinking and thoughtful communication.
It is a procedure and teaching technique that involves effective oral communication, 说和听，讨论建立合作, 人际关系技巧.
Learning how to conduct an effective classroom discussion is an essential skill for any teacher to master.
Despite its enormous importance as a teaching and learning strategy, classroom discussion the knowledge circle can be quite fragile, 说教育工作者. It is highly involving, but it relies on student participation. Classroom discussions help students develop new insights and perspectives, 然而，他们很容易偏离轨道.
圆的知识 provides teachers with a strategic framework for planning and conducting discussions that foster student participation and critical thinking.
知识圈是德甲比赛下注app所熟知的六个核心“. 这六个方面在书中都有最好的解释, “Essential Strategies for Achieving Excellence with the Common Core” by Harvey Silver, 托马斯·戴维, & 马修Perini.
Teachers who learn the blueprint will be better able to help their students meet the new common core standards and design lessons or activities that utilize the game plan.
这是至关重要的, 事实上, that it gets its very own strand of Speaking and Listening Standards, 随着阅读, 写作, 和语言. 根据共同核心, 为上大学和就业做好准备, students must have ample opportunities to take part in a variety of rich, 结构化的对话——作为整个课堂的一部分, 在小群体, 和一个围绕重要内容建立的合作伙伴”. The 圆的知识 strategy helps teachers create a classroom culture where these kinds of “rich, 有条理的对话“成为常态.
A close look at the Standards for Speaking and Listening makes it clear that low-level question-and-answer sessions won’t cut it. Students need to be able to “participate effectively … building on others’ ideas”, “integrate and evaluate information” and “evaluate a speaker’s point of view, 推理, 以及证据的使用". 这些都是高水平的思维技能, which is why 圆的知识 discussions are built around serious, 发人深省的问题. 圆的知识 develops students’ thinking through provisional writing and effective questioning techniques and has students work 在小群体 to integrate and evaluate ideas before participating in the larger discussion.
The Common Core State Standards for English 语言艺术 and Literacy reminds us that the “twenty-first-century classroom and workplace are settings in which people from often widely divergent cultures and who represent diverse experiences and perspectives must learn and work together” To thrive in these characteristically diverse settings, 学生们需要学会倾听, 欣赏对立的观点, and disagree without “steamrolling” (or being steamrolled by) their peers. 精心设计的知识圈讨论, 其中，教师建立通信协议, 允许学生在小的和大的小组工作, 并逐渐将更多的责任移交给学生, give students the practice and support they need to build these essential 人际关系技巧.
Discussion is an essential component in any thoughtful classroom. Dialogue and conversations are foundations for serious thought, and learners in discussion-rich classrooms enjoy irrefutable benefits: deeper comprehension, 提高处理复杂和严格内容的能力, 提高解决冲突的技能, 以及更大的学习热情.
数学就是一个很好的例子. 在学习数学时, kids are often hit with one concept after another without taking the time to thoroughly explore and discuss. This creates an environment that leaves many students tuned out.
But if a teacher can instead give the students an opportunity to talk concepts in greater detail and the bigger ideas and concepts of math, 它创造了一个充满兴趣和参与的环境.
How the 圆的知识 strategy can apply to your classroom
超过核心六项，教师现在可以 德甲联赛下注app to get hands-on instruction in how to apply the common core standards in their classroom. 通常这六个组成部分 阅读的意义, 比较和对比, 归纳学习, 为学习而写和词汇的代码-不是单独的, but as part of the larger series designed to help teachers learn strategies that will significantly improve their ability to teach the Common Core State Standards.
学习的内容 class 专注于知识圈, will afford a teacher the skills necessary to implement the discussion technique 圆的知识. This strategy provides teachers with the framework for planning and conducting discussions that foster student participation and critical thinking.