如何以不同而有趣的方式扩大学生的词汇量

  • Is stale the best word, or is stagnant better? Is there rain outside, or a deluge? Do you hear noise, or a commotion? And are the differences important?

    他们确实是,尤其是在一个青少年发短信说 what u doin? or get outta here! all day long, when abbreviations such as LOL (laugh out loud), BTW (by the way), 或POS(父母在肩膀上)代表真正的语言在眨眼之间.

    词汇技能在阅读理解中起着至关重要的作用, writing ability, and correct communication of ideas. 每个学生5岁时的词汇量反映了他们在家里学到的东西, from the way their parents speak, to having books read to them, to watching television or movies. 这个孩子在10岁时的词汇量将成倍增长, taking in words and nuances from school, technology, and their peers. And by age 15, social media will play a role as well.

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    词汇量大的学生在写作中会更成功地交流,更有效地表达自己. 词汇量的强弱直接关系到阅读理解和语言发展的成功, 而这些因素又与学校的整体成绩直接相关.

    在一个阅读成绩下降的时代——三分之二的美国四年级和八年级学生没有达到美国国家儿童基金会设定的阅读能力标准 National Assessment of Educational Progress test in 2019 – building vocabulary is more important than ever.

    “为了有效地教授词汇,教师必须学习运用最佳方法的必要技能,” writes Dominican University of California. “学生词汇教学是一门艺术,它可以帮助学生记住新的词汇,让他们繁荣起来.”

    以下是用新颖或有趣的方式教授词汇的5种方法:

    • “New and Improved” word lists: For her third graders, teacher Genia Connell writes in Scholastic 她每周都用一个“婴儿词”或“儿童词”开始,他们小时候就用这个词, 然后让学生们在这个单词的基础上创建一个大约10个单词的列表. 所以“吃”可以扩展为狼吞虎咽、品尝、消费、吞噬、狼来、狼吞虎咽等等. A sheet of chart paper on the wall holds all these words, 随着学生们在一周内想出更多的单词, they’re added with sticky notes. At the end of the week, Connell makes a copy of the list for all her students, with punch-holes so they can be kept in a notebook. 在写作课上,康奈尔告诉她的学生,“注意婴儿词汇!看到他们立即开始查阅他们过去的单词列表,以更复杂的方式书写.
    • A “Breakthrough Box:” Have your students cut out a word from a magazine, a newspaper, a cereal box, or a mailing, and bring it to class. 将单词粘贴在3×5卡片上,放入“突破盒”中. Each day, 当老师叫一个学生从盒子里拿出一张卡片时,一个单词“break through”就出现了. 然后,这门课的任务是发现单词的含义以及它可以被使用的所有方式. When finished, 这个词可以钉在公告板上或写在学生的词汇书里.
    • Picture of the Day: Each day, pin a picture to the front board. 它可以是任何东西——杂志上的广告,互联网上的打印件等等. 让学生尽可能多地想出不同的词来描述这幅画. A picture of an orange, for instance, might inspire the words orange, fruit, dessert, juice, healthy, peel, and seeds. As time goes on, make the pictures more difficult.
    • The “Shades of Synonym” Wall: Jessica Azar tells Teacher Magazine about an idea she first found on Pinterest. 在五金店或家装店收集一堆油漆芯片卡片. At the top of each paint chip, write a common word. 然后,在每一个剩余颜色的油漆片上,写上一个同义词. 把所有的油漆碎片钉在公告板上,鼓励学生在写作练习中拿油漆碎片,并使用不同的单词. The paint chips themselves help the students learn. “如果一个学生看到底部有一个单词像‘amazing’,他们不知道这是什么意思, they can go up and they can see the word ‘good,’ Azar says. “所以有时候我甚至会看到他们写了‘饿了’这样的单词,’他们会把它划掉,他们会去找“阴影墙”这个词,它会说‘饥饿’,他们在自己的写作中写了这个词. They’re more aware of the word choices that they’re using, trying to make their writing more interesting.”
    • “Fast-Talker” Game: 创建一个分类列表,分发给你所有的学生. (Categories can be animals, things that are red, things you see at the grocery store, words associated with the environment, and so on.然后为每个类别创建一张卡片,列出该类别的单词. (Words for animals could be dog and cat, or course, but since you’re working to expand vocabulary, you could use coyote, lynx, lemur, orangutan, and so on). 选择一个学生作为第一个“演讲者”,并给这个学生一张卡片. 这个学生的任务是快速说话——这个游戏的另一个名字是“mile-a-minute talker”——让其他学生猜卡片上的每个单词. For “coyote,” for example, the student could say “like a dog but wild,” or “lives in a pack,” or “smaller than a wolf.一旦全班猜测是郊狼,这个学生就会猜测是猞猁.

    多米尼加大学的一个六门系列课程旨在帮助教师学习将显著提高共同核心州标准教学能力的策略, including vocabulary. 要查看课程大纲或了解更多有关该主题的信息,请点击每个链接.

    • Vocabulary’s CODE (EDUO 9213):一种帮助学生掌握关键概念和掌握新词汇的方法. 1 semester credit.
    • Reading for Meaning(EDUO 9208):学会实施基于研究的阅读策略. 这种关注可以帮助所有读者理解具有挑战性的文本. 1 semester credit.
    • Compare and Contrast: (EDUO 9209): Builds a student’s memory, helps eliminate confusion, 并将关键的相似点和不同点集中起来. 1 semester credit.
    • Inductive Learning: (EDUO 9210):帮助学生加深对内容的理解,培养他们的推理和证据收集技能. 1 semester credit.
    • Circle of Knowledge此课程为教师提供了计划和进行讨论的框架,以培养学生的参与和批判性思维. 1 semester
      • Write to Learn (EDUO 9212): A strategy to improve students’ thinking, deepen their comprehension of content, and help teachers with formative assessments. 1 semester credit.

      And for a look at all of Dominican’s professional development courses, visit us here.

      Photo credit: RA2Studio via iStock photos